????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????? ? ????????? ????????? - Denominational Symbols in Hungarian Civic and Communal Heraldry



municipal heraldry, civic heraldry, religious symbols, denominational symbols, Hungary, Roman Catholic, Greek Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed, Eastern Orthodox


The paper discusses how particular Christian denominations are represented in the coats of arms of Hungarian towns and villages. Among the heraldic charges analyzed there are many depictions of actual churches (or standardized ones), but also other, more abstract symbols are in use (although with material prototypes), for example a simple Latin or two-barred cross (items usually ascribed to Roman Catholics), an Eastern Orthodox cross (used mostly by Greek Catholics) and an octagram known as the „Calvin star“ or the „Star of Bethlehem“ (one of the symbols of the Hungarian Reformed Church). However, all these assignments are not exclusive; only the Luther rose uniquely identifies Lutherans in all instances. A particularly interesting aspect of some of the emblems discussed is the use of hybrid (dimidiated) charges representing two different denominations at once.




How to Cite

Pawlas, S. (2019). ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????? ? ????????? ????????? - Denominational Symbols in Hungarian Civic and Communal Heraldry. Македонски хералд - Macedonian Herald, (12), 25-43. Retrieved from http://heraldika.org.mk/macedonianherald/index.php/mkherald/article/view/9